Ovary: Poster Abstract: Pure primary non gestational choriocarcinoma ovary – diagnostic dilemma and treatment intricacy
This article was originally published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow and was migrated to Scientific Scholar after the change of Publisher.
Germ cell tumors of the ovary include all neoplasm derived from primordial germ cells of the embryonal gonad. Five percent of germ cell tumors are malignant, representing three to five per cent of all ovarian carcinomas of which pure primary non-gestational ovarian choriocarcinoma accounts for less than one per cent of ovarian tumors. Primary choriocarcinoma of ovary could be gestational or nongestational in origin. They pose diagnostic challenges in reproductive age group patients because of elevated human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG). Non-gestational choriocarcinoma (NGCO) is resistant to single agent chemotherapy, requiring more aggressive combination chemotherapy post surgery. Due to the rarity of the disease, this article reviews the treatment protocol for NGCO.
All the articles related to choriocarcinoma of ovary at Pubmed, Google scholarly article and Scopus were assessed and reviewed and their references were also reviewed and included in this article.
Clinical diagnosis of NGCO is often challenging because the clinical symptoms are often nonspecific and can mimic other, more common conditions that occur in young women, such as a hemorrhagic ovarian cyst, tuboovarian abscess, ovarian torsion, and ectopic pregnancy. The symptoms of vaginal bleeding, elevated hCG level, pelvic pain, and an adnexal mass often lead to incorrect diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy, threatened or incomplete abortion, cervical polyp, or other types of malignancy. Non-gestational choriocarcinomas have been found to be resistant to single agent chemotherapy, have a worse prognosis, and therefore require aggressive combination chemotherapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy with the EMA (etoposide 100mg/m2, methotrexate 100mg/m2, actinomycin-D 0.5mg) regimen may be given, for six to nine courses at seven days interval. Studies suggest that the disease responds well to the combination of surgery and postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy. However, long term effects of such therapy should be further studied with more cases.
Because of the small number of patients with pure ovarian choriocarcinoma, a consensus on the treatment regimen including surgery and chemotherapy is lacking. Surgery with adjuvant combination chemotherapy is the standard treatment of choice.